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Samara theatres developed as well as many other provincial theaters. Samara theatre culture in 1940 - 1960 largely determined by the interaction of the capital and the provinces.

The pinnacle of the musical life of Samara of the XX century, a truly historical event was the performance on the stage of the Samara opera theater the Seventh ("Leningrad") Symphony of Dmitri Shostakovich. Great creation that reflects the tragic events of war, transmitting the greatness of the heroism of Soviet soldiers was eventually written by the composer in December of 1941, when he was evacuated to Samara. That masterpiece was performed by the orchestra of Bolshoi Theatre under the direction of Samuel Samosud March 5, 1942.

Maksim Gorky Samara Academic Drama Theatre is the first permanent theater of Samara with a history of more then 150 years.